Posted on 3 Comments

UEFA Champions League Final 2018 – Coaching Insights

African american soccer coach holding a soccer ball. You are on your way to becoming a better coach.

Congratulations to Real Madrid for winning their third consecutive Champions League title. If you watched the game or read the commentaries you will understand that this exciting game had many critical moments. The early injury to Liverpool’s Mohamad Salah, followed by an injury to Madrid’s Carvahal. Or the two utter and complete goalkeeping errors by Liverpool’s Karius. So what are the coaching observations? Let’s look at them through the lens of our Four Pillars of Soccer:

The Mental Game

Until Salah’s substitution Liverpool was controlling the game and had generated nine attempts at goal. Madrid was on its heels. Remember that Salah had been Liverpool’s, and in fact, the Premier League’s leading goal scorer. The entire Liverpool attacking scheme is built around Salah. Losing him consternated the Liverpool team. They actually changed their mental approach to the game, stopping their attacking game and surrendering the game to Madrid. Like the air had gone out of their balloon. I am convinced coach Klopp addressed the issue at half time to rebuild the team’s confidence, and there were positive signals, until Madrid’s first goal (see below). What is interesting is that a team at this level had no positive mental response to the early loss of their key player. That is a mental preparation issue that teams need to address. What do we do when we lose a key player? There must be an instant switch to plan B. Instead, Salah’s loss was a giant momentum shifter.

What about Carvahal’s early loss to Madrid? He is a key defender on the right side, an integral part of Madrid’s back four. I observed coach Zidane actually grinning when he replaced Carvahal with Nacho. Almost like he was saying “I wanted to start Nacho anyways, now I got the lineup I wanted”. I am sure that’s not what he was thinking, but from a mental perspective Carvahal’s loss didn’t affect Madrid at all.

Granted, relatively speaking Salah is more important to Liverpool than Carvahal is to Madrid, but the teams dealt with their respective losses quite differently.

What about Karius’ first error? A technical or a mental issue? Recall the play: A long ball is played by Madrid to an off-side Benzema. Karius picks up the ball and Benzema finishes his run right to the keeper. Next, Karius bends a bit wanting to roll the ball to his right defender. Benzema, still there, reacts and sticks out his left leg. The ball hits his leg and rolls into the net. There wasn’t anything technically wrong with what Karius was doing – no error in his throwing motion or direction. The issue was he shouldn’t have released the ball at all. Goalkeepers are trained to do a 360 scan before releasing the ball. Some keepers do it quite visibly every time, some only when they know there is an opposing player near, some scan imperceptibly. The problem here is that Karius didn’t scan at all. He didn’t realize the presence of Benzema. He deviated from the routine of scanning – a clear mental error, a lapse of concentration.

Benzema on the other hand demonstrated some of the Seven Speeds of Soccer:

• He perceived that Karius didn’t scan
• He anticipated Karius’ attempt to distribute the ball to the right
• He decided to stay close to Karius and go for the ball
• He reacted to Karius’s motion
• He acted with incredible speed and got his foot on the ball

Technical Skills

The second goalkeeping error was clearly a technical issue. The ball was struck from nearly 40 m by Bale and came towards the goal in a predictable flight path and at an obvious high pace. Initially Karius got into the right position with his body behind the ball. The decision he had to make was between catching the ball and punching the ball. I have seen both techniques in situations like this and while punching the ball may look unorthodox it is a valid option.

Karius chose to catch, so far no problem. But for some inexplicable reason he put his arms out in front of his face as if he wanted to catch the ball about 6 inches in front of him. His fingers were up and his palms extended towards the ball. With that hand position he would not have caught the ball, he would have blocked it and it would have dropped in front of him. He would have likely tried to dive on it to recover it. Now some coaches advocate this technique, I think it is flawed. In this case Karius also moved his head away from the ball so there was no body part behind the ball when it struck his hands. The force of the shot actually bent his hands and the ball deflected into the net.

I teach goalkeepers to always have their body behind the ball if they attempt to catch it, and in the process of catching it get their hands on the ball at the same time the ball contacts the body. In this case Karius should have jumped and caught the ball on his chest, cradling it in with his hands. If he wouldn’t have jumped then at the very least his head should have been behind his hands so that there is backing in case the ball slips through the hands. Goalkeeping is about ultra-quick decisions and reactions. If Karius thought the ball came in at high-speed and an awkward height for a catch then he should have punched it out. Check our Soccer Goalkeeping Practicebook for great goalkeeping drills and tips.

The key technical error was trying to catch the ball with his arms extended in front, palms out, and no body part behind the ball. Pure and simple.

Posted on Leave a comment

Coaching Soccer Goalkeepers

An icon of a soccer goalkeeper making a save.

I came across a very interesting interview with Raphael Schaefer, former professional goalkeeper and licensed goalkeeper coach for German second division club Nuremberg. Here is a summary of some key questions and answers.

Which basic characteristics must a goalkeeper have?

RS: that depends on age. Below U14 keepers should have natural flexibility, the courage to dive, and jumping ability.

How important is height?

RS: Height is important for professional teams. At U14-U19 it is less important because height deficiency can be compensated with technique and jumping power. At this level stopping balls and performing within the team is more important.

What are your priorities in goalkeeper training?

RS: Mastering the goalkeeping basics. 90% of goalie work is still using the hands. 10% is using the feet.

How do you integrate goalie training with team training?

RS: I coordinate the training with the coaches of all age groups to plan training sessions. We also review the past week’s performance of the keepers with video analysis to direct the efforts. We also record all training sessions so we can provide specific feedback. In our club we target to develop three keepers in each age group with the goal of leading the best to our professional squad.

For goalkeeper training drills and practices, check out our Soccer Goalkeeping Drills & Practice Plans

Posted on 2 Comments

Cognitive Soccer Skill Development – Exerlights

In our Seven Speeds Of Soccer I emphasize the importance of four cognitive skills (perception, anticipation, decision-making, reaction) and their speed. Our Soccer Drills & Practices incorporate the development of these critical speeds into training programs for all ages.

When the technical, tactical, and physical fitness components of the Four Pillars of Soccer have been developed to the near optimum level for individuals or teams, then the difference will be in the mental, or cognitive area, of the game. This is a realization of many national and professional team coaches. What this implies is that cognitive development lags the others, regardless of age and competition levels of the teams and players. This is why so many teams have benefited from our practices.

We have just leaned about a brand new and revolutionary training tool from Germany called Exerlights. Typically players wear pinnies to create small groups or designate roles within soccer drills (blue vs. red, green player is target, etc.). Exerlights uses LED strips on players with the ability to change colours instantly. There are also LED strips that can be attached to goals, again with goals changing colours instantly. All the activity set-ups are programmed into an App which is controlled from the coach’s handheld device.

Here is how it works:

Imagine a small sided game, 4 “red” vs 4 “blue”. There are four goals, two at each corner of the playing area. Team Red attacks the blue lit goals and team Blue attacks the green lit goals. So far it sounds like a typical soccer practice activity. The coach may introduce variations, such as asking teams to attack the other goal now, introduce a neutral player, rotate players between teams etc.

Exerlights has pre-programmed changes to both player and goal colour. If a player’s colour changes, they now belong to the opposite team. If a goal colour changes, teams have new targets. This forces players to always scan their environment (360 degrees) to be aware of which team they belong to, which goal to attack, which function to perform. At the same time they may be moving with or without the ball and make regular game action decisions. It is easy to imagine how the cognitive skills are first challenged and then developed.

Watch a You Tube Video and be amazed.

Posted on Leave a comment

Choosing The Right Soccer Goalkeeper Gloves

As a trained goalkeeper I enjoy coaching goalkeepers of all ages, but in particular young and motivated youth goalies. Currently I am coaching the keepers for a girls U12 competitive team. As we were doing drills one goalie wasn’t comfortable punching the ball because her gloves hurt her hand. The gloves she had were of the style that has air cushioned plastic inserts on the top of the gloves including the fingers. The pressure of the plastic hurt her hand when punching the ball. So we decided to set out and find a new pair of gloves.

That wasn’t an easy task since the variety, styles, brands, and prices were incredible. She tried on many different ones to find the ones that work best for her. As we went through the process I suggested some criteria for selecting gloves to help with the decision and I recommend using these for any goalkeeper. In order of priority these criteria are:

  1. Fit
  2. Ball handling, control, feel
  3. Dry grip
  4. Wet grip
  5. Cushioning


It is really important that the glove fits the hand perfectly. Remember that gloves were an invention to help goalkeepers. When I played we didn’t use gloves and our hands directly handled the ball. There was immediate ball feel and control. So from a fit perspective gloves should be as close as possible to giving the feel of “no gloves”. That means they should fit snug, not too tight and not too loose. This is particularly important for kids and youth players. Quite often I see gloves that are too long in the fingers. The rationale is that the keeper will grow into them and they should last a few seasons. Financially understandable but not good for the keeper. As the hands grow, the gloves need to grow with them. If that means to buy a new pair every year, or even every six months, so be it. There are other ways to save money. So try lots of gloves until you find a few pairs that fit just right.

Ball Handling, Control, Feel

The ultimate ball handling, control, and feel is with bare hands in dry conditions. Fingers can flex without impediment, grip is perfect, and feel of the ball is accurate. If you wondering what I mean by “feel” ask any goalie and they will explain it. Some of it is physical and some of it is mental (confidence). Therefore the objective is to find gloves that mimic bare hands as much as possible. That means the gloves should not be too thick and padded such that bending the fingers is too difficult. Lack of flexibility results in goalies parrying or dropping the ball more than they should instead of holding on to it. The plastic air cushions on the back of the glove as described for my goalie need to be considered carefully. The theory is that they provide extra support to avoid overextending or breaking the fingers and to help with punching the ball. But they can also be stiff and reduce flexibility or hurt the hand when the ball hits them. So be sure that your goalie is comfortable with them and can handle the ball properly. Don’t be afraid to toss a ball at the keeper in the store and let them catch, pick up, and punch it.

Dry Grip

The gloves should allow the ball to be gripped without slipping off or through the gloves. The actual soccer ball construction plays a role in this as well. Especially in youth soccer ball surfaces vary from shiny/polished to ribbed or embossed. Any surface other than shiny should not be a problem for any glove. So try them with a shiny ball. I have observed many goalies put water or spit on their gloves in dry conditions. I don’t see a technical reason for it but as long as it does no harm I have no objection. I believe it is more psychological than practical. Dry grip ranks ahead of wet grip because more games are played in dry conditions than wet conditions.

Wet Grip

Gloves should absorb some water and their surface should remain “sticky” to handle a wet ball. This is probably something you can’t test during the purchase process, but it shouldn’t be a major issue either. Most gloves will be fine. This is the one area where soccer gloves outperform bare hands, and it was one of the original reason for the invention of soccer goalie gloves.


You may be surprised to find cushioning at # 5 of my list of priorities, particularly since all gloves are cushioned and often sold on that benefit, performance, and difference to other gloves. But remember cushioning was secondary in glove development to wet grip. In my experience cushioning has not prevented any broken bones. Goalies can break wrists from hard shots, but there is little cushioning on the wrist. There are straps and they are for stability, which is good. A hard shot and unfortunate hand position may still cause breaks. The top of the hand rarely breaks. Fingers do break or overextend but that is mostly an unfortunate position of finger relative to the ball. Cushioning will take the sting out of hard shots and avoid some minor potential bruising. It is therefore a source of comfort and confidence. So cushioned gloves are a good thing and I recommend cushioning highly. But not at the expense of fit, ball handling, or grip.


Like getting the right shoes for optimal ball control and kicking, getting the right gloves to optimize goalkeeper performance is critical. No matter what coaches, parents, or peers think it is up to the goalkeeper to determine the right pair of gloves for them. They may not be the fanciest or most expensive, or they may be. Have your keeper try them in store. If they turn out not to be the best, buy another pair considering what you learned. You might want two pairs – one for practice and one for the game. Chances are that gloves get used more in training, which means they must be the best possible, just as for the game.

Check out our soccer goalkeeper practice plans & drills: Soccer Goalie Practices

Posted on 1 Comment

Soccer Skill Mechanics – Jockeying

An adolescent getting ready to kick a soccer ball. Link to a soccer preactice book for U9 to U12.

Soccer Jockeying Video
Soccer Jockeying Video Link

Very recently I was asked by two experienced soccer coaches how to teach players the mechanics of a particular soccer skill, one of them being defensive jockeying,

I was surprised because I thought coaches would know how to break down a skill into its mechanical elements, demonstrate to their players, and then correct them and show them how to improve that skill to perfection. So I explained jockeying but that wasn’t enough. I then demonstrated to show them what my words meant. We got into some discussion because one of them had learned something different. It then dawned on me that depending on the coach’s experience, their training, and their resource material, they may have different understandings of how a certain skill is executed.

When I got back home I researched the internet for specifics on defensive jockeying. To my surprise there were quite divergent views on how to jockey. I decided that the best way to convey the skill mechanics was through a well explained or at least well presented video. Again, I found material that was good, some that was completely wrong, and some I found good enough to pass on to interested coaches.

So what I will do is feature a soccer skill on our site with a brief explanation of the key elements and a link to the video I believe best represents that skill. Hopefully it will not only save you research time, but also give you the proper way of teaching the particular soccer skill.

Defensive Jockeying

Defensive jockeying can be from behind an attacker who is shielding the ball or from in front of an attacker who is trying to dribble past you.

The key principles of jockeying are:

  1. Distance to attacker – very close from behind, arm’s length from in front
  2. Body posture – crouched (knees bent) and at an angle
  3. Body position – between attacker and goal
  4. Eyes – on ball, not on body
  5. Goal – force attacker to the outside, away from the net
  6. Tip – the side line or goal line act like a defensive wall, pushing the attacker close to these lines severely limits their options.

Click on the picture above or this text link to access an excellent and short YouTube video:

Soccer Jockeying Video


Posted on Leave a comment

Soccer Speed 7 – Game Action

This is the last article in our series of the seven speeds of soccer. It all culminates in the final component of soccer speed: Game Action Speed. It relies on all of the other components of soccer speed for its execution. It is the ability to make fast, effective decisions during the game in relation to technical, tactical, and conditioning possibilities. The capacity to process information quickly during a game is an individual player attribute. It can even vary within a player depending on the game situation or the emotional, physical, and psychological state of the individual.

In this series on soccer speeds I used a lot of examples from out-players and showed quite a few practice drills. In this last segment I will again offer a couple of practice drills, but I will use an example of a youth goalkeeper to demonstrate all seven speeds of soccer.

Practice Drill 1:

Set up two goals (A and B with goalkeepers), 15 m to 20 m apart. Have two players and one server at each goal. A player from goal A sprints towards goal B and heads a ball thrown by server at goal B on goal B from a distance of 5-7 m. Immediately after heading the player turns and sprints to a second ball played on the ground by the same server (from goal B) and takes a one time shot at goal A. Player goes back to his group at goal A. Now reverse direction.

Practice Drill 2:

Divide team into groups of nine players. Each group of nine is further divided into three teams of 3, each team wearing a different colour vest/shirt (say red, yellow, blue). Set up an area of 20 m by 30 m. The teams play a 6 v 3, let’s say red and yellow v blue. Red and yellow pass (coach determines maximum number of touches per player – i.e. one touch or two touch passing). Once blue steals the ball, they become one of the attacking teams and the team that last touched the ball before blue took possession now defends. Let’s say red last passed the ball and blue intercepted, it will now be yellow/blue playing v red.

Speeds of Soccer – Goalkeeping Example

The goalkeeping example I will use is a penalty kick.

Perception/Anticipation/Decision Making Speeds

KyraPk1 The goalkeeper is in the “ready” position. She perceives everything the player who takes the penalty kick does. Deciphering body language she determines if the player is confident or nervous. A confident player is most likely to take a short run up and strike the ball hard. A nervous player may take some stutter steps and is unsure of where to place the shot and hence strike it with less than maximum power. The keeper then anticipates what kind of shot is likely to come. If she has information on the player’s PK preference that factors into the anticipated shot. I always teach my goalies to react to the penalty kick, not simply choose a corner to dive into. This means having anticipated the shot, she now observes the actual movement of the player, their planting foot placement and their body position/rotation before the ball is struck. The decision the keeper makes is where dive to, say lower right (from goalie perspective) corner, mid height left corner, or stay.

Reaction SpeedKyraPk2

Having decided in the instant before the shooter strikes the ball, the goalkeeper now reacts to the actual shot. If the initial decision was correct, executing the dive to the right corner has a better chance of success than reacting to a shot that goes in the opposite corner. In our example the goalkeeper made the right decision, reacted to the actual shot and made the save. The save resulted in parrying the ball to the side and now she must react to the new situation and get ready for the opponents to attack the rebound. In goalie language this is called recovery.

Movement Speed Without Ball


Having been down on the ground and stopped the shot, the goalkeeper must now get up as quickly as possible, get ready for the shot off the rebound and go through the cycle of perception/anticipation/decision making again. She does this without the ball and saves the 1 v 1 situation against the opponent.

Movement Speed With Ball

HKyraRollaving gained control of the ball, the goalkeeper gets on her feet with the ball in her hands. She quickly runs to the top of the penalty box, all the while observing where her team mates are. Ideally she wants to quickly distribute the ball to start a fast break counter attack. Most likely the opponents anticipated a goal to be scored and aren’t thinking about transitioning to defense. The goalie’s team would react to the save and start making runs forward. If the runs are there the keeper can distribute the ball.






[separator top=”40″]

Game Action Speed

The execution of the save, the accurate distribution of the ball, and the transitioning sprints from watching a PK to attacking the opposite goal determine the game action speed. If all the other speeds are underdeveloped, this will be a slow process and the opponent will have ample time to get into a defensive position. If all speeds are well developed then the counter attack will be fast and lead to a scoring opportunity within a few seconds.

The difference between winning and losing lies in the seven speeds of soccer.


Posted on Leave a comment

Soccer Speed 6 – Action With Ball

Let’s recap the first five speeds of soccer we reviewed in earlier articles:

  1. Perception
  2. Anticipation
  3. Decision Making
  4. Reaction
  5. Movement Without Ball

Notice that the first three speeds are mainly mental, in other words speeds of thought. Reaction is built on the first three but eventually it leads to an action in response to some stimulus – re(sponse)action. The fifth speed is entirely physiological. None of them actually require a soccer ball, in fact, none of them in their pure definition are sport or soccer specific. Of course it makes sense for us to train them in a soccer specific context, using drills involving a ball and game situations.

The sixth soccer speed, action with ball, totally involves the mastery and control of the soccer ball. It is about executing all required soccer skills with a high degree of accuracy at maximum speed.

It is good that a player perceived the play, anticipated the exact end point of a pass, decided to meet the ball there, reacted to the actual pass, and out-sprinted the defense to get to the ball first. All this will be wasted if that player needs a few touches to control the ball, needs to adjust their body to get ready for a shot, and then hope to strike with pace and accuracy. It may work at very young ages but as players mature, competition increases, and the demands of the game grow, it will not be successful.

What is required is to execute ALL skills at maximum speed with accuracy. I always start with emphasizing accuracy first, then add speed. The ONLY way to improve skills is through repetition. Assuming reasonable natural aptitude for soccer, the kids who practice most and touch the ball most often will eventually turn into the best soccer players. Studies have shown that 4,000 ball touches a week, starting at age 5, will suffice. A typical 1.5 hour youth practice will have each player touch the ball at best 100 times. So even three practices a week isn’t even close. Our practices average around 500-600 touches per player if coached correctly. Still not even half of what is required in three sessions per week. This then leads to individual extra ball work for those who aspire to higher level soccer.

Here then are some suggestions for improving action speed with the ball.

Simple Passing Drill

Two players are 10 m (more or less depending on age and skill level) apart and pass the ball back and forth to each other, using two touches. The first touch is to receive/control the ball, the second touch is to pass it back. The key coaching points are:

  1. The ball never stops, i.e. the first receiving/controlling touch must be forward and in the direction of the second touch – the pass. The ball must still be in motion when it is struck for the pass.
  2. The players never stop. They move toward the ball for the first touch (attack the ball). The ball must be controlled close to the body such that the second touch can be played in a quick continuous motion, striking the ball with the second step. To be clear: Receive/control the ball with the right foot and move the ball forward. Take one step forward landing on the left foot and strike the ball with the right on the second step forward. After passing the player shuffles backwards to be in position to receive the next return pass.
  3. Ball must remain on ground and be passed in a straight line.
  4. Use the instep or laces to pass the ball. Instep for shorter distances and maximum accuracy, laces for longer distances and pace.

Count the number of completed accurate passes in two minutes. It will become obvious that accuracy pays dividends as any errant ball will waste precious time in retrieving it and resetting the drill.

Once you are satisfied with accuracy and speed, advance to one touch passes. There are countless variations and progressions of this basic soccer drill to simulate various game situations – long balls, off the ground passes, give and gos, etc.

This is just a ball control/passing example. Our books are full of drills addressing ALL soccer skills.

Individual Drill

Parents often ask me what their children can do at home to improve their skills. One example I give them is the above drill, using a wall as the second player. Simply ask the child to pass the ball (could even be a plastic/rubber ball to protect the wall) against a wall such that it comes straight back at them. Attack the rebound, control, pass against the wall, retreat to starting spot – keep repeating. Set a specific distance to the wall and count the number of successful passes in two minutes. One progression may be to put a tape on the wall at ever increasing heights off the ground and ask the ball to hit the wall just above the tape.

This of course requires motivation and discipline, so find a way to make it fun and rewarding.

Posted on Leave a comment

Soccer Speed 5 – Movement Without Ball

Soccer coach going over play on writing board

Vern Gambetta of Gambetta Sports Training Systems said it best:

“Game analysis has shown that the average player will be in possession of the ball only 2% of total match time. What happens the other 98% of the time?”

The answer is that players move, or at times rest. The average professional soccer player runs between 10 km and 14 km during a 90 minute game. That is a lot. Using the math above 9.8 km to 13.7 km are run without the ball. The running is a mix of many physical movements:

  1. Short sprints to receive a pass
  2. Long sprints to close down an attacker
  3. Short jogs when the play is shifting
  4. Long jogs to get up the field to take a corner kick
  5. Jumps for headers
  6. Side steps
  7. Running backwards
  8. Quick changes of directions to lose a defender
  9. Quick moves getting into position to receive a throw in
  10. Short steps or long strides
  11. Sliding for tackles
  12. Diving for goalies
  13. And many more

Next time you watch a professional game live or on TV try to discover all the various movements. I challenge you to make a list and see if you can come up with at least 20 different movements, not involving the ball. It will probably be easier in a live game attendance since on TV the cameras tend to focus on players with the ball.

Then watch a youth (U3 – U10) game. If you coach youngsters you will see it all the time. The kids may have some decent ball skill, and the ones who do tend to dominate the games. That’s because in a lot of places, and in the home, emphasis is on ball skill development. And that is good. You will also see a lot of kids not moving, moving too late, moving too soon, using long strides for short distances, or quick steps for long distances. Their timing to tackle is off, resulting in unintended fouls. Try teaching them a new move, such as a simple step-over, and you will see them tripping over their own feet for lack of coordination.

So how do kids develop from limited movement ability to professionals with precision movement?

The answer as always is practice. Specific movement drills are rare and it takes an excellent coach to build them into practices. We want you to be an excellent coach. Some Ideas:

  • Mark a line on the field and ask players to walk from five meters distance towards the line. The goal is to step on the line with right/left foot and then go into a sprint accelerating off the foot that hit the line. Sprint for 10 m. To make it more fun, finish the sprint with a shot on net (resting ball, ball crossed by coach or player). Once they master this, ask to run to the line and step on it. You will likely see players get close to the line, stop, and adjust the length of the final step to hit the line. Challenge them to walk/run without stopping – suggesting they should think about spacing their steps.
  • Shuffle two or three steps to the left/right and explode into a short sprint. Again, finish off with a shot.
  • Jump and turn 180 degrees in the air. Right after landing sprint in the opposite direction you were facing before jumping.
  • Have two players pass the ball to each other (give-go) in a small grid, suitable to the age of the players. Make sure that the ball is passed into space diagonally forward and that the receiving player times their run to arrive at the target spot at the same time as the ball.

We have many soccer drills in out books that incorporate soccer movement speed without the ball.

You will see tremendous improvement from beginning to end of season.

Posted on 1 Comment

Soccer Speed 4 – Reaction

Soccer reaction speed is defined as the ability to react to a previous action as perceived by the player..

We typically think of reaction and its speed in the context of goaltenders making saves. And that is true as goalkeepers are trained to react to the motion of the shooter and the flight of the ball immediately after it leaves the foot. But all other positions rely on reaction speed as well. Although a player has perceived and anticipated the next play, and made a decision on what to do, the actual play may be somewhat different. Therefore one must react to the actual outcome of the anticipated play. A good example is a forward getting sent into the penalty box with a through ball. Both forward and passer perceive the space behind the defense. The passer anticipates the run and the forward anticipates the pass. The decision is to pass and the forward decides to shoot on goal on the first touch. At the moment of the shot a defender slides in from behind to block the shot. The forward now reacts to the new situation, controls the ball to the side past the defender, and then shoots on the second touch.

Many factors impact the reaction speed of a soccer player, arguably the most important one is aerobic fitness. As individuals become tired, the reaction speed slows. Other factors are the type of reaction, age, gender, motivation, emotional state, intensity of the situation, muscles involved, etc. So it is a very complex process and training has to be very specific to develop reaction speed.

Some soccer drills which are included in our books to improve reaction speed are:

Soccer Reaction Drill 1

Two players face each other with a ball in between them. Distance from player to ball is one step. On command by coach, both players try to pull the back with the sole of their foot.

Soccer Reaction Drill 2

Attackers and defenders are in a grid, attackers with a ball. The distance from grid to goal (with goalkeeper) varies depending on the age of the players. Attackers and defenders are numbered. I suggest to have a maximum of four attackers and defenders paired up, so you have attackers 1,2,3,4 and defenders 1,2,3,4. If you have more players set up additional grids. Inside the grid the attackers dribble the ball and the defenders follow them. The coach calls out a number between 1 and 4 and the attacker whose number is called immediately tries to leave the grid and go for a shot on goal. The defender who has been shadowing the attacker must react and try to prevent the shot.

Our books have many more reaction speed drills incorporated into practices. Our goalkeeper book, Soccer Goalkeeper Practices has a huge focus on reaction drills.